Here’s the ultimate travel essentials list for Turkmenistan; everything from currency, tipping and clothing dress codes can be found below.
The local currency is called the Turkmen manat (TMT) and can only be exchanged in Turkmenistan. For the latest exchange rates you can review this website www.xe.com
We recommend you take your spending money in US dollars, as many restaurants, shops and bars only accept hard currency. Trying to change traveller’s cheque or British Pounds into the local currency is difficult and is not a convenient option. Please ensure the bank notes you travel with are in good condition and we recommend you take new (post 1998), good dollar bills in small denominations.
You can exchange money in most towns and your local guide can recommend where to change money. There are some ATM machines and credit cards can be used in five star hotels, some well-established restaurants and larger stores.
It is extremely difficult to change Turkmen manat back into dollars at reasonable exchange rates, so it is advised that you spend what Turkmen manat you have before leaving the country. For this reason we also advise that you exchange money in small amounts at any one time.
Food and Drink
Costs of meals can vary depending on a number of factors including type and style of restaurant, location, number of dishes or courses eaten and therefore we have provided an average price guide. Fancy city restaurants are more expensive than local restaurants in small town or off the main tourist route. Always try an eat in restaurants frequented by locals as these will generally provide the best eating experience.
- Lunch price: £5.00
- Dinner price: £8.00
- Beer price: £1.50
- Water price: £0.80
Ensure you visit your travel clinic before travel for general advice on travel risks, vaccinations and malaria. There are no compulsory vaccinations for Turkmenistan, but your travel clinic will probably recommend protection against typhoid, tetanus, diphtheria, polio and hepatitis A. For more information regarding vaccinations and travel health visit www.fitfortravel.nhs and www.masta-travel-health.com. Vaccination requirements are subject to change and should be confirmed by you before travelling.
Turkmen, Russian, Uzbek
Turkmenistan is 5 hours ahead of GMT.
A valid travel insurance policy to cover theft, loss and medical issues is a must. It is your responsibility to arrange appropriate travel insurance and ensure you have read and understood the full terms and conditions of your travel insurance policy to ensure that you are covered for all activities you intend to undertake whilst on the tour, including all optional activities.
It is a good idea to photocopy all relevant documents – passport, travel, insurance policy etc., and leave one copy at home. Carry another copy with you separate from the originals.
Wi-Fi and Mobile Phone Coverage
Internet access is available in Turkmenistan but is limited to the main cities and towns. The easiest internet access is by logging on to Wi-Fi hotspots available at four and five star hotels. The quality of Wi-Fi varies greatly depending on your location and often does not reach all of the hotel bedrooms. Also, in the more remote locations such as the mountainous areas, the internet will not be available.
Turkmenistan mobile phone network has thorough coverage, at least in the Urban areas.
A round two-pin plug is required to charge your phone, camera, video camera or electronic devices. The voltage in Turkmenistan is 220 volts. In some of the remote area of Turkmenistan, electricity may not be available 24 hours a day.
Cottons and natural fibre clothing is the best for travel in most places and this is also true of Turkmenistan in Central Asia. Summers in Central Asia are hot but warmer clothing including a fleece / windproof jacket is worth packing for desert evenings and outdoor camping. During the cooler spring and autumn months were recommend that you pack warmer clothing that can be layered if necessary.
Turkmenistan is traditionally Muslim and therefore tight or revealing clothing, short skirts or shorts, sleeveless tops and blouses should be avoided. Women should pack a headscarf and carry it with them for visits to mosques and sites of religious significance.
Good quality, comfortable walking shoes or light boots and trainers.
Day sack, water bottle, sunhat, sunglasses, high factor sunscreen, head scarf, torch, insect repellent, ear plugs and travel first aid kit.
Culture and Customs
The culture in Turkmenistan, formerly Turkmenia, is based on a nomadic way of life. Turkmen were originally nomadic horsemen and some still follow this lifestyle. For centuries fragmented tribes fought each other according to their needs. In doing so they developed into brave warriors and skilled horsemen becoming known as the ultimate frontier fighters. Before the early 1930s the people were grouped into different clans / tribes and spoke a number of different dialects. Joseph Stalin tried to bring unity and nation building.
Despite following Islam the people are spiritual and have kept some of their ancient beliefs based on shamanism and Zoroastrianism. Following the birth of the Soviet Union in 1917 government ownership took control of the lands. Nomadism and tribal cultures was halted, local tribes, religious leaders and political structures were attacked and suppressed. Turkmenistan gained independence in 1991 and is evolving as a modern country with a proud past.
Turkmenistan is famed for its array of handmade colourful rugs which historically helped the locals identify the different tribes and clans. Jewellery is also important and the plays and significant role in the culture. Most jewellery is made of silver embellished with precious stones which are believed to have magical powers. Jewellery was worn as a sign of status and was believed to increase fertility in young women.
As with all Central Asian countries tipping is part of the culture in Turkmenistan. We recommend you carry notes in small denominations for everyday tipping duties. Regardless of the tipping formalities good tips should be given for excellent service. Below are some guidelines for general tipping which is or course discretionary.
- Local full day city guide: 10 – 12 USD per day, from your group
- Local Driver: 8 – 10 USD per day, from your group
- Restaurants, cafes and bars automatically apply 10% service charge
As with most Muslim countries petty and violent crime is very rare in Turkmenistan. Throughout your tour you will be required to travel with a licensed guide as independent travel is not permitted. This means that you will be accompanied by an experienced guide who will unlock the culture and history of this wonderful country. Out of respect for your guide please adhere to local guidelines as failure to do so is likely to reflect badly on your guide and could put them in hot water.
Travel Safety Advice
We strongly recommend that you check your government’s travel advisory for up-to-date information and advice about your destination: safety and security, entry requirements, health, local laws and customs. For UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office advice www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice
Festivals and Holidays
Turkmenistan has several festivals over the year and tours can be planned around some of the festivals mentioned below.
A Drop of Water is a Grain of Gold Day (April)
Water and the people who preserve this precious resource in this desert land are celebrated with special feasts, sports competitions and music.
Turkmen Horse Day (April)
The horse is celebrated as a vital part of historic culture. Turkmenistans native Akhal-Teke breed is known for its speed and endurance and metallic looking coat. This led to the breed being known as “Golden Horses” and are an icon of Turkmenistan culture. At the centre of the festival are equestrian games and horse beauty contests as well as plenty of singing and dancing.
Turkmen Carpet Day (May)
Only celebrated since independence in 1991 Carpet Day commemorates the intricate woven carpets with a range of weaving demonstrations, exhibitions, fairs and awards for the very best and talented carpet weavers.
Revival, Unity, and Magtymguly Pyragy Day (May)
Held on May 19 and 20, this spring festival celebrates Magtymguly Pyragy, a poet and spiritual leader from the 18th century. He was passionate in his desire to unify the people and is revered by the people of Turkmenistan to this day.